What is the Downstream Stage of Petroleum Refining?

The petroleum refining process involves three distinct stages. We refer to these as upstream, midstream, and downstream. While CPV Manufacturing works with clients involved with each of these steps, today we want to focus on the downstream market stage. This stage involves turning petroleum into marketable products, distributing those products, and selling them to consumers. While petroleum resources are very valuable, they aren’t useful for the average person. More refining and processing is necessary to bring them to market. Downstream is where the raw natural gas or oil is converted into usable products, including gasoline, kerosene, lubricants, diesel oil, waxes, and others. People use these products every day, so the downstream market stage is very important for keeping demand met and the supply chain operating smoothly. 

Another important part of the downstream market stage is hydrodesulfurization. Petroleum materials in their unrefined forms contain poisonous hydrogen sulfide. This makes the materials dangerous for consumers and severely limits their use. Through hydrodesulfurization, the hydrogen sulfide is removed from crude oil or natural gas, rendering it safe for further refining. The hydrogen sulfide itself is converted into elemental sulfur or sulfuric acid, which both have industrial applications.

The downstream market stage is the final link in the petrochemical industry chain, connecting the average consumer to the vast industrial operation which supplies them. At CPV Manufacturing, we work with companies to ensure they are prepared for the unique challenges of the downstream market stage. From outfitting to repair, we provide the highest quality in materials and experience. 

If you’d like to learn more about the downstream market stage, the petroleum refining process, or the products we provide at CPV Manufacturing, please contact us.

Selecting Valves For Use With Chlorine

Valves in Chlorine Applications

Chlorine is used in processes from the production of PVC (polyvinyl chloride) to water treatment. In our modern culture chlorine plays a huge role in refrigeration; it enables us to cool our homes, our vehicles, and our food.

As a disinfectant, it makes drinking water and swimming pools safe by killing dangerous bacteria. It works as a sanitizer in eliminating bacteria from non-porous surfaces.

Chlorine is used to make paper, textiles, medicines, insecticides, and solvents. PVC is used everywhere from water pipes and insulation for electrical wires to blood bags.

When combined with water, it forms hydrochloric acid (HCl), a widely used and commercially important strong acid.

Under normal conditions, chlorine is a gas. Liquid chlorine has been pressurized and the temperature lowered.

Materials Suitable for Chlorine Piping and Valves

Wet chlorine, that’s either gaseous or liquid chlorine having more than 150 parts per million of water by weight, is highly corrosive and will aggressively attack iron, steel, some stainless steel, Monel®, nickel, copper, brass, bronze, and lead. Dry chlorine can be handled by these metals at temperatures below 250°F without corrosion. And while titanium will react with dry chlorine causing corrosion or even combustion, it is a good option for wet chlorine.

Fluid Fittings for Chlorine Production at CPV Manufacturing

Risks Associated with Chlorine

 Chlorine service comes with its share of risks. Some of the potential dangers and considerations are discussed here.


In its liquid form, chlorine has a high coefficient of thermal expansion, meaning that the volume increases as temperature goes up. Care must be taken to ensure that any chlorine that gets caught between valves can be released into an expansion chamber. Otherwise, the pipes or fittings could burst or rupture due to the pressure generated by expansion of the chlorine.

Fire and Explosion

Chlorine is not flammable and does not, under normal conditions, support combustion. Because it is an oxidizer, however, care must be taken to avoid the potential of fire.

Oxygen cleaning of valves prior to installation and use is critical in chlorine applications. There can be no oil or grease residue or any other contaminant that could result in a fire in the valves or anywhere in the piping system. Processing in CPV’s class 10,000 clean room meets or exceeds the recommendations for manufacturers providing valves and fittings for chlorine use.

A co-product of chlorine that’s manufactured by electrolysis of sodium chloride solutions is hydrogen (H2). The hydrogen and chlorine gas mixture poses a risk of fire or explosion. Static electricity and impact, as well as ultraviolet light (from sunlight or elsewhere), can set off this reaction. These gases should not be allowed to mix.

Another potential by-product of chlorine manufacturing is nitrogen trichloride (NCl3), also known as trichloramine. This compound, which results from the reaction of chlorine and ammonium salts, irritates mucous membranes when inhaled. It’s also highly explosive.


Liquid chlorine will burn the skin. When the liquid mixes with certain other chemicals, especially ammonia or acids, it releases toxic gases.

Gaseous chlorine is a strong irritant of mucous membranes. It’s also toxic at a level as low as 1000 parts per million.


Chlorine itself is non-corrosive. In its liquid form, however, it is hygroscopic, attracting water from its surroundings. With the addition of water, both the liquid and the gaseous chlorine states form hydrochloric (HCl) and hypochlorous (HClO) acids, making it highly corrosive. It can also form ferric chlorides (Cl3Fe), which is damaging to Teflon™ surfaces.

A moisture-free environment preventing water from entering the system will reduce or eliminate this risk. All equipment should be kept dry and care taken to ensure no water remains after cleaning.

Types of Valves for Chlorine Service

Some valve types are better than others when it comes to chlorine processes and operations.

Globe valves

Several factors make globe valves one of the best choices for chlorine use.

  • Ability to provide a tight shutoff
  • Ability to confirm whether it is open or closed
  • The multi-turn operation that provides for slow and careful opening and closing
  • Bi-directional seating – its ability to shut off in both directions without trapping liquid inside

Any leakage will allow moisture from the air to enter the system causing corrosion so flexible graphite or PTFE should be used for packing.

In accordance with The Chlorine Institute’s Pamphlet 6, Piping Systems for Dry Chlorine, Edition 16, globe valves for chlorine service should have a bolted bonnet with at least four bolts, a blow-out proof stem, either Stellite hard-facing metal seating or PTFE soft-seating, and an outside screw and yoke gland for external packing gland adjustment.

Ball valves

Providing tight shutoff, the ball valve has a reliable stem seal design. They can be full-bore or reduced-bore. A full-bore (or full-port) valve has an opening the same diameter as the piping, so there’s no restriction in flow through the valve.

 Because chlorine that gets trapped in the valve could expand, ball valves need to have a release for any resulting pressure. Either a relief hole bored into the ball or pressure self-relieving seats can be used.

Single-seated segmental ball valves, on the other hand, do not trap liquid when they are closed. They’re commonly used as control valves.

Fully-lined ball valves are lined with a fluoropolymer resin, so there is no metal to chlorine contact. They can be used with wet or dry chlorine gas without concern for corrosion.

Butterfly valves

Both soft-seated high-performance butterfly valves and fully-lined butterfly valves are options. The soft-seated valves are useful in large pipes.

In fully-lined butterfly valves, like fully-lined ball valves, the fluoropolymer lining prevents the chlorine from touching any metal. They can be used with wet or dry chlorine.

Valve Selection Criteria

Stem seal

To prevent leakage through the stem seal in the presence of large or frequent temperature fluctuations, consider using bellows seals or live-loaded packing.


Consider both ambient and processing temperatures when selecting valve materials. Keep in mind that throttling applications can create pressure differentials, resulting in lower temperatures.

Wet or dry chlorine

Wet chlorine is highly corrosive to a number of metals, whereas dry chlorine is not. If the chlorine being processed is dry but could become wet, select materials that are suitable for both.

Flashing and cavitation

The potential for flashing and cavitation should be considered and its avoidance considered when sizing the valve.


Where ferric chloride or sodium sulfate may be present, these compounds can build up in parts of valves where there’s low velocity. They also may adhere to some parts. Periodical stroking of the valve should free the build-up. Material that has been stuck for too long can harden, causing the valve to be unable to properly seal and to potentially leak.

All valves for use with chlorine service must be prepared for service according to The Chlorine Institute’s Pamphlet 6, Section 4.5 and labeled to show that it has met the requirements.

At CPV Manufacturing, we are unwavering in our commitment to quality. Browse CPV Manufacturing’s catalog or contact us to discuss your chlorine service needs.

New Ergonomic Valve Handles

Kennett Square, PA, USA (4/11/22) – Admiral Valve, LLC dba CPV Manufacturing Launches the Next Generation of Ergonomic Handles

CPV Manufacturing has reimagined the design of its O-SEAL® and G-Series® valve handles to deliver unparalled efficiency to operations in piping systems. CPV is delighted to finally introduce the new, functional, ERGONOMIC handles to customers worldwide.


The next generation of handles provide less hand discomfort and easy operation to workers that maintain CPV valves on a regular basis. These innovative handles will now be included with the purchase of the full-size range of CPV O-SEAL® and G-Series product lines, in place of the old handles.

CPV’s Next Generation of handles are better, safer, and more dependable than the previous handles in every single way. With a sleek design, the new handles are made with an anti-slip material and utilize smooth edges, allowing for a better grip. This makes operating the valves that much easier. The handles are available in 4-Prong and 2-Prong configurations to suit specific valve sizes.

CPV manufacturing is 100% confident that these handles will provide lasting value to not only future customers who will purchase O-Seal® and G-Series® valves with the new handle, but also to previous customers. CPV is offering the opportunity for existing customers, who currently employ these valves in service, to switch out their old valve handles with the next generation.

For a minimal cost, CPV will send a replacement kit, fit for certain specifications, that includes an installation tool, hex nut, cap, snap ring, and an aluminum handle. Using the kit, customers will be able to replace their old handles in less than a minute and reap the benefits of the replacement for the entire lifespan of CPV valves (30+ years)!

To view how simple the installation/removal process is, CPV has created an in-depth YouTube tutorial to watch, here and an instructional blog to read, here.

If you have any questions or wish to order a handle replacement kit, contact CPV today at Sales@cpvmfg.com.


CPV Manufacturing LogoCPV Manufacturing was founded in 1915 as a one-man business, manufacturing replacement valves for steam-driven reciprocating pumps. Today, CPV is recognized worldwide for its high-quality valves and fittings and dedication to state-of-the-art design, equipment, safety, and reliability. CPV Manufacturing’s valves withstand the high tolerances required by the maritime, industrial gas, and petrochemical industries. Based out of Kennett Square, PA, USA, CPV has a complete facility for developing, manufacturing, and testing its products. Dedicated workers and global partnerships allow CPV to be a market leader. 

Installation and Removal of CPV’s New Handles

The process of installing and removing our new ergonomic valve handles for the full-size range of O-SEAL® and G-Series® product lines is so simple it can be done in under a minute! The ease of installation can be seen below in the step by step tutorial.

This specific bulletin shows the installation of a 4-prong valve handle; however, the same steps apply to our 2-prong valve handles. The only difference is and additional step due to an extra washer in the replacement kit, also shown below. During installation and removal of a 2-prong handle, the extra step would occur after step 2 for both.

Installation and Removal of CPV's New Handles


For extra guidance, we have listed all the removal steps below and made an in-depth YouTube tutorial showing just how simple the installation and removal of our new valve handles really are!

Removal Steps:

Step 1: Using the Handle Installation Tool, pick out one end of the Snap Ring and lift it out of the groove. Be sure to place your hand over the ring to keep it from flying away and becoming lost.

Step 2: Remove the Cap covering the Hex Nut.

Step 3: Remove the Hex Nut with a Socket Wrench. The handle should then come right off the valve.


Feel free to contact us at Sales@cpvmfg.com or 484.731.4010 if you have any other questions!


CPV Manufacturing LogoCPV Manufacturing was founded in 1915 as a one-man business, manufacturing replacement valves for steam-driven reciprocating pumps. Today, CPV is recognized worldwide for its high-quality valves and fittings and dedication to state-of-the-art design, equipment, safety, and reliability. CPV Manufacturing’s valves withstand the high tolerances required by the maritime, industrial gas, and petrochemical industries. Based out of Kennett Square, PA, USA, CPV has a complete facility for developing, manufacturing, and testing its products. Dedicated workers and global partnerships allow CPV to be a market leader. 


Why Become a CPV Distributor?

At first glance, it may seem like becoming a CPV Manufacturing distributor is an appropriate career choice for only those who are interested in the petrochemical, shipbuilding or industrial gas industries; however, a CPV Manufacturing distributor is so much more than that. Your passion for helping improve processes with superior products is what’s needed to become a CPV distributor. CPV distributors fill a vital role as valve distributors in building relationships and connecting companies that are looking for solutions and the industry-leading products CPV manufactures. Our high-quality products are in demand across multiple industries, including shipbuilding, petrochemical, industrial gas, chlorine, oil and gas, and pharmaceutical.

As a valve manufacturer and pipe-fitting manufacturer, our designs are rigorously tested to meet the exacting standards required of high-pressure applications. As a valve supplier, you will be helping companies improve their applications by using the highest-quality valves and fittings. Valve distributors play a critical role in providing the critical customer support for companies that would benefit from CPV Manufacturing products. Your earning potential will be nearly unlimited as you identify opportunities that would benefit from our world-renowned products. 

For over 100 years, CPV Manufacturing has been creating solutions as a valve and pipe-fitting manufacturer. Our products are designed to withstand even the most demanding conditions across a multitude of applications.

When you become a distributor of CPV Manufacturing products, you are becoming a part of a long history of excellence, working with a company that is known for providing the highest levels of customer support to the most demanding of industries. You can rely on our unwavering commitment to excellence and lasting value—which means our products will continue to be in demand by firms all over the world. At CPV Manufacturing, we will provide you with the support you need to be successful as a worldwide distributor. To learn more about becoming a CPV Manufacturing distributor, contact us today.

Gate Valves vs. Ball Valves vs. Globe Valves vs. Needle Valves

Valves are critical components of any mechanical system that needs to regulate and control the flow and pressure of fluids and gasses. There are a wide variety of valves available on the market to choose from, and each one has specific applications. It is important to know the different specifications of each type of valve in order to select the best product for your job. 

Gate valves are so aptly named because they are a valve that opens by lifting a gate or barrier out of the path of the fluid. One of the most commonly used valves, they are easily recognizable by their having a handwheel. They require very little space and are primarily used to stop the movement of fluids. In order to regulate the flow, you turn the handwheel, which lifts the barrier and opens the path for the liquid to flow. The barrier must be completely lowered in order to fully close the valve and stop the liquid from flowing.   

Similar in nature, ball valves are designed to control the flow of liquids or gas. Instead of using a barrier to control the flow by moving up and down, there is a rotating hollow ball that controls the flow. The ball valve is open when the hole is lined up with the inlet and closed when it is rotated 90 degrees. This difference in the way each of these valves works may not seem important, but the design features allow for control to be applied in specific ways. Gate valves are ideal in situations where you need to regulate flow and ball valves are ideal when you need to be able to turn the valve on or off without dropping the pressure. 

Globe valves are different from both gate and ball valves in that they rely on a plug or disc that moves to regulate the flow in a pipeline. These valves can be manually operated or automated. Globe valves are unique in that they allow you to not only control the flow and pressure of gas or liquid, but you can also completely shut off the flow. While this feature is incredible, the design of the valve that allows this flexibility also enables high-pressure loss when the globe valve is fully open.

Needle valves are aptly named for the particular shape of the plunger within the valve. This design allows the valve to regulate the flow with exact precision. If you need to be able to control the flow of liquids or gas smoothly and large pressure drops are acceptable, needle valves may be the ones you need. Needle valves are most commonly used in low-flow-rate applications. 

CPV Manufacturing offers a wide variety of valve products, and our experts are able to help you assess your valve needs to find the best product for your system. Contact us today if you have questions about our valves or other products!

Valves and Fittings for the Shipbuilding and Marine Industries

When it comes to shipbuilding, it is fundamentally true that the sum is only as good as the parts. If the building-block components of the ship are not carefully constructed and trustworthy, there may be serious issues down the road for the ship. CPV Manufacturing understands the vital importance of marine plumbing fittings, marine pipe fittings, marine pipe valves, and boat plumbing fittings in the shipbuilding industry. When you are determining where to source your valves and fittings from, you will need to find a company that can deliver safe and reliable products that will guarantee the quality of your ship. 

Valves and fittings are not uncommon anywhere fluids need to move through pipes; however, the shipbuilding industry requires special parts that can accommodate specific environmental factors such as salt water. A variety of valves and fittings are used throughout the ship, based on how the machinery systems need the liquid to move through the system. Common marine plumbing fittings and marine pipe fittings are elbows, plugs, nipples, and couplings. Marine pipe valves are equally as important, as they control the flow or pressure within the pipes. Boat plumbing fittings are the final piece in managing fluids and transfers within the system. These should be sturdy enough to secure the plumbing fittings. These four component pieces work together to protect the integrity of the entire system. 

At CPV Manufacturing, we are passionate about manufacturing the highest-quality marine plumbing fittings, marine pipe fittings, marine pipe valves, and boat plumbing fittings for the shipbuilding industry. We rigorously test our products to ensure they meet the highest standards. Our impeccable standards have made CPV Manufacturing the trusted and reliable leader in the manufacturing of valves and fittings for over 100 years. When you use our innovative O-SEAL® series of valves and fittings, you will know you are using the best products available. If you would like to learn more about the valve and fitting products we manufacture for the shipbuilding industry, contact CPV Manufacturing today! 

Safety Valves for Critical Applications

Safety valves were first invented during the industrial era and are designed to be a fail-safe, automatically releasing substances from a system when preset limits are exceeded. By design, regular valves endure immense amounts of erosion from the materials flowing through components. Over time, these valves can be affected by the constant use. There are several indicators when valves begin to fail, including noises, abnormal vibrations, and erosion of component parts. Failing valves can be expensive to repair or replace, can release toxic emissions, and in certain instances can be safety hazards. Safety valves were created to be a safeguard against these possible outcomes. There are several kinds of safety valves.

  • Pressure relief valves are what most people think of when they think about safety valves. This type of safety valve opens when a certain level of pressure is reached, and its purpose is to release that pressure. This prevents the excess pressure from damaging the system or other areas. You will find pressure relief valves are useful in many systems but are typically used in boilers and pressure vessels.
  • Gas and vapor valves are designed to work with specific gas and/or vapor systems. Gasses and vapors can be volatile and require careful systems. Gas and vapor safety relief valves ensure systems are constantly operating at the optimal pressure.
  • Vacuum relief valves are designed to protect a system, tank, or other equipment from breaking and/or imploding. Vacuum valves are usually attached on the top of a tank.

We are proud to offer you the best selection of superior safety valves. Our exacting standards are unmatched, and this is one reason why CPV Manufacturing is the leader in producing the highest-quality safety valves in the industry. We offer both high- and low-pressure safety relief valves. We are recognized for our products, and a few of them are:

  • The O-SEAL® system of high-pressure safety valves and fittings
  • The Mark VIII® system of tube-size valves and fittings
  • The G-Series® stainless steel shutoff, needle, and check valves

Contact us today to learn more about these durable and long-lasting safety valves!

The History of CPV Manufacturing

The CPV Manufacturing company that exists today has a long and colorful history. Headquartered in beautiful Kennett Square, Pennsylvania, today it is a legendary manufacturing company known all over the world for superior industrial valves. However, our notoriety does not end there. For over 100 years, we have manufactured a wide variety of mechanical components, including high-quality valves, high-pressure couplings, and O-seal valves. Our products are tested to meet the most demanding standards and are suitable for use in many industries, including industrial gas, petrochemical, and ship building. In fact, our products have met the exacting standards of the U.S. Navy and we are proud to work with them.  

Our success in manufacturing did not come easily. We have worked for more than 100 years perfecting our craft, and that has led us to being industry leaders and a trusted supplier. CPV Manufacturing was founded in 1915 by a Pennsylvania Dutch farmer turned machinist, Isaiah G. Engle. He started this company with his own two hands and was driven by his passion to serve his community. Although Engle focused on creating the highest-quality replacement valves for steam-driven reciprocating pumps, that was only the beginning. 

Throughout the years, our dedicated team would provide several breakthroughs in the manufacturing industry and revolutionize industrial valve design and production. In the 1940s, we created the Silent check valve. Because our innovative design prevented damage from reverse flow, water hammer, and even pressure surges, these very valves are still the global standard.

The incredible success of one valve might have been enough for one company, but not CPV Manufacturing. We continued to look for ways to advance manufacturing and design to create the highest-quality products. Our team had another breakthrough just 10 years later as our partnership with the U.S. Navy began to flourish. 

The strict requirements set by the U.S. Navy were the creative environment we needed to find new testing methods using O-ring connections. The new testing methods led us to having a better understanding of the O-ring, which led to the creation of our famous O-Seal valve product line. Today our O-seal valves and fittings are used in a wide variety of plants and industries. 

If you’d like to learn more about CPV Manufacturing or have any questions about our quality valves and fittings, please contact CPV Manufacturing today!

5 Things You Should Know About Monel®

In the engineering sphere, you’re used to working with various forms of metal,
especially machined valves and fittings.

These types include Monel®, which is the name given to nickel-based alloys
that contain mostly nickel and copper, along with trace amount of carbon, iron,
manganese, and silicon.

Today, we’re diving into this material and sharing five facts you might not
know about it. Ready to learn more? Let’s get started.

1. Monel® is More Versatile Than You Thought

With its trademark high-corrosion resistance and tensile strength, Monel® can
fit a variety of applications and use cases. It’s also easy to braze, weld and

As such, manufacturers can mold it into the following forms, among others:

  • Castings
  •  Forgings
  •  Wires
  •  Sheets
  •  Rods
  •  Tubes
  •  Plates
  •  Nuts
  •  Bolts
  •  Rivets
  •  Nails
  •  Screws
  •  Tube fittings
  •  Fasteners
  •  Valves

While Monel®400 is one of the most common types, you can also find Monel®
401, 405, 450, K-500, and related models. All will display the trademark of
Special Metals Corporation.

2. It’s Saltwater-Friendly

Monel® is resistant to deterioration, rust, and corrosion. This makes it ideal for
equipment parts that are present in chemical and marine environments. Some
main market applications in this area include:

  •  Piping systems
  • Pump shafts
  •  Trolling wire
  • Seawater valves & environments
  • Strainer baskets
  • Chemical and hydrocarbon processing equipment

Due to its high corrosion resistance to acids, oxygen and alkalis, you'll find
Monel® in chemical plant equipment. It also retains its strength at very high
temperatures, leading to widespread use in the aerospace industry.

3. It Helps Make Music

Monel® first entered the music industry in 1962, when a flat ribbon of Monel®
400 was used in electric bass strings.

Now, you can also find it in the valve pistons or rotors of some of the finest-
quality instruments in the world, including tubas, trumpets and French horns.

4. The Patent Dates Back to 1905

In 1905, metallurgist Robert Crooks Stanley created the metal. He patented it
through the company he worked for, the International Nickel Company

He named it Monel® after the company’s then-director, a role that he would
assume years later.

5. It Was Once a Household Name

That steel sink in your kitchen would have been a Monel® one a few decades

One of the first uses of Monel® was as a roofing material for Pennsylvania
Station in New York City in 1908. Then, from the 1920s to the 1940s, it
became one of the most common household materials on the market, used to
create sinks, appliances, and even countertops.

When more affordable stainless steel entered the industry in the 1950s,
interior design attention often diverted away from Monel®. Today, savvy
shoppers can still find vintage originals for their retro kitchens!

How Will You Use Monel®?

Monel® is a powerful player in the engineering space, heralded for its strength
and durability. Whether you’re looking for a heat exchanger, wind instrument,
piping system water tank, or any other resource, it’s a go-to resource and
industry mainstay.

Looking for quality machined valves and fittings to help tie your systems
together? That’s where we come in.

We offer an array of products in our catalog, specially formatted to meet your
needs. Contact us today to learn more or get a quote!